JAMA Inter Med に報告された、胃酸ブロッカーは、多剤耐性菌のリスク増加と関連していますか？のメタアナ
Primary meta-analysis of 12 studies including 22 305 patients that provided adjusted ORs showed that acid suppression increased the odds of intestinal carriage of MDROs of the Enterobacterales order and of vancomycin-resistant enterococci by roughly 75% (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.40-2.16; I2 = 68%).
Is gastric acid suppression therapy associated with an increased risk of intestinal colonization with multidrug-resistant microorganisms?
This systematic review and meta-analysis, including 26 observational studies and 29 382 patients, found that the use of acid suppressants was associated with an increased risk of colonization of the intestinal tract with multidrug-resistant microorganisms of the Enterobacterales order (producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases, or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases) and with vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
This adverse effect of acid suppressant use adds to others recently described and, in view of the global increase in antimicrobial resistance, calls for a more prudent use of acid suppression therapy, which may help to reduce multidrug-resistant microorganism colonization rates.
Acid suppressants inhibit gastric acid secretion and disrupt the intestinal microbiome. Whether acid suppression increases the risk of colonization with multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDROs) is unclear.
To systematically examine the association of use of acid suppressants with the risk of colonization with MDROs and to perform a meta-analysis of current evidence.
Data Sources PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science Core Collection, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from database inception through July 8, 2019.
Study selection was performed independently by 2 authors (R.P.J.W. and C.M.J.E.V.-G.) on the basis of predefined selection criteria; conflicts were resolved by consensus or by an adjudicator (K.v.D.). Human observational studies (case control, cohort, and cross-sectional) and clinical trial designs were selected if they quantified the risk of MDRO colonization in users of acid suppressants in comparison with nonusers.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) recommendations were followed. Data were extracted independently by the same 2 authors, and adjudication was conducted when necessary. Risk of bias was assessed according to a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using random-effects models; heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 method.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome measure was intestinal colonization with MDROs of the Enterobacterales order (producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases, or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas or Acinetobacter species.
A total of 26 observational studies including 29 382 patients (11 439 [38.9%] acid suppressant users) met the selection criteria. Primary meta-analysis of 12 studies including 22 305 patients that provided adjusted ORs showed that acid suppression increased the odds of intestinal carriage of MDROs of the Enterobacterales order and of vancomycin-resistant enterococci by roughly 75% (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.40-2.16; I2 = 68%). The odds were concordant with the secondary pooled analysis of all 26 studies (OR = 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44-1.99; I2 = 54%). Heterogeneity was partially explained by variations in study setting and the type of acid suppression.
Conclusions and Relevance
Acid suppression is associated with increased odds of MDRO colonization. Notwithstanding the limitations of observational studies, the association is plausible and is strengthened by controlling for confounders. In view of the global increase in antimicrobial resistance, stewardship to reduce unnecessary use of acid suppressants may help to prevent MDRO colonization.