Results of a study evaluating the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are reported.
A retrospective records review was conducted at a 400-bed hospital to identify patients admitted over 3 years with CAP documented as a primary or secondary diagnosis. Clinical and medication-use outcomes during a 1-year baseline period and in the first and second years after ASP implementation (post-ASP years 1 and 2) were analyzed. A local CAP guideline was implemented around the beginning of post-ASP year 2.
The mean hospital length of stay declined from 7.24 days in the baseline period to 5.71 days in post-ASP year 1 (p = 0.011) and 5.52 days in post-ASP year 2 (p = 0.008). Mean inpatient antimicrobial days of therapy (DOT) declined from 5.68 days in the baseline period to 5.08 days (p = 0.045) and 4.99 days (p = 0.030) in post-ASP years 1 and 2, respectively. Mean DOT per 100 total days of antimicrobial therapy declined from 9.69 days in the baseline period to 8.85 days in post-ASP year 1 (p = 0.019) and 8.38 days in post-ASP year 2 (p = 0.001).
ASP implementation was associated with specific clinical benefits in patients with CAP, including decreased length of stay, decreased durations of antimicrobial therapy, and a shift in utilization to a primary regimen shown to produce superior clinical outcomes.