さまよう薬剤師のブログ

学位を持っても、センスのない、感染制御専門薬剤師のブログ.  I have Ph.D. but less sense ID pharmacist.

antibiotic time-out

当院は、 antibiotic time-outを意識してます。

 
病棟薬剤師の教育としてもよい影響があると思います。
 
それは、感染症の基本
「感染臓器、原因微生物、重症度」を確認する必要がある事に加え、薬剤師として感覚が乏しい、「時間軸」を意識する一歩になりえるからです。
 
antibiotic time-outとは、
抗菌薬開始後48時間において以下を確認することである。
  1. 抗菌薬が有効か?
  2. 投与薬剤、投与量、投与経路は正しい?
  3. デ・エスカレーション可能?
  4. 治療期間は?
 
UpToDateにおいて、antibiotic time-outについて以下のように記載されてます。
 

 

Tailoring antibiotic therapy ("antibiotic time-out") 
 
In patients receiving empiric antibiotic therapy, the regimen should be reevaluated on a continuing basis as the clinical status evolves and microbiology results become available (often after 48 to 72 hours). At this point, an "antibiotic time-out" should be performed, in which microbiology results are reviewed and antibiotic therapy is adjusted from empiric to definitive antibiotic therapy. The spectrum of coverage may be narrowed or broadened as appropriate, the dose may be adjusted as needed, and unnecessary components of the regimen should be eliminated. If it is apparent that the patient's clinical status is not the result of bacterial infection, antibiotics may be discontinued altogether. During the antibiotic time-out, the indication and duration of antibiotic therapy should be estimated and stated in the medical record.
 
CDCは以下のようです。
Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs
 
Action: Implementing at least one recommended action, such as systemic evaluation of ongoing treatment need after a set period of initial treatment (i.e. “antibiotic time out” after 48 hours)
 
なお、論文はまだ少ないのですが、増えて来ました。
 
PMID 25402404
 
BACKGROUND
Antibiotic use is an important quality improvement target. Nearly 50% of antibiotic use is unnecessary or inappropriate. To combat overuse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) proposed "time-outs" to reevaluate antibiotics.
OBJECTIVE
To optimize antibiotic use through trainee-led time-outs.
DESIGN
Before-after study.
SETTING
Internal medicine (2 units, 46 beds) at a university hospital.
PATIENTS
Inpatients (n = 679).
INTERVENTION
From January 2012 until June 2013, while receiving monthly education on antimicrobial stewardship, resident physicians adjusted patients' antibiotic therapy through twice-weekly time-out audits using a structured electronic checklist.
MEASUREMENTS
Antibiotic costs were standardized and compared in the year before and after the audits. Use was measured as World Health Organization defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 patient-days. Total antibiotic use and the use of moxifloxacin, carbapenems, antipseudomonal penicillins, and vancomycin were compared by using interrupted time series. Rates of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection were compared by using incidence rate ratios.
RESULTS
Total costs in the units decreased from $149,743CAD (January 2011 to January 2012) to $80,319 (January 2012 to January 2013), for a savings of $69,424 (46% reduction). Of the savings, $54,150 (78%) was related to carbapenems and $15,274 (22%) was due to other antibiotic classes. Adherence with the auditing process was 80%. In the time-series analyses, the only reliable and statistically significant change was a reduction in the rate of moxifloxicin use, by -1.9 DDDs per 1000 patient-days per month (95% CI, -3.8 to -0.02; P = 0.048). Rates of C. difficile infection decreased from 24.2 to 19.6 per 10,000 patient-days (incidence rate ratio, 0.8 [CI, 0.5 to 1.3]).
LIMITATION
Other temporal factors may confound the findings.
CONCLUSIONS
An antibiotic self-stewardship bundle to implement the CDC's suggested time-outs seems to have reduced overall costs and targeted antibiotic use.
 
 
PMID 27621509
 
BACKGROUND
Antibiotic time-outs can promote critical thinking and greater attention to reviewing indications for continuation.
OBJECTIVE
We pilot tested an antibiotic time-out program at a tertiary care teaching hospital where vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam continuation past day 3 had previously required infectious diseases service approval.
METHODS
The time-out program consisted of 3 components: (1) an electronic antimicrobial dashboard that aggregated infection-relevant clinical data; (2) a templated note in the electronic medical record that included a structured review of antibiotic indications and that provided automatic approval of continuation of therapy when indicated; and (3) an educational and social marketing campaign.
RESULTS
In the first 6 months of program implementation, vancomycin was discontinued by day 5 in 93/145 (64%) courses where a time-out was performed on day 4 versus in 96/199 (48%) 1 year prior (P = .04). Seven vancomycin continuations via template (5% of time-outs) were guideline-discordant by retrospective chart review versus none 1 year prior (P = .002). Piperacillin-tazobactam was discontinued by day 5 in 70/105 (67%) courses versus 58/93 (62%) 1 year prior (P = .55); 9 continuations (9% of time-outs) were guideline-discordant versus two 1 year prior (P = .06). A usability survey completed by 32 physicians demonstrated modest satisfaction with the overall program, antimicrobial dashboard, and renewal templates.
CONCLUSIONS
By providing practitioners with clinical informatics support and guidance, the intervention increased provider confidence in making decisions to de-escalate antimicrobial therapy in ambiguous circumstances wherein they previously sought authorization for continuation from an antimicrobial steward.