akinohanayuki ブログ

学位を持っても、センスのない、感染制御専門薬剤師のブログ.  I have Ph.D. but less sense ID pharmacist.

CDI RCT ちょこっとまとめ




CDI 治療 どこに向かうのだろうか?






JAMA 2015 May 5; 313(17):1719-27.

Administration of spores of nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile strain M3 for prevention of recurrent C. difficile infection: a randomized clinical trial.

Among 168 patients who started treatment, 157 completed treatment. One or more treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 78% of patients receiving NTCD-M3 and 86% of patients receiving placebo. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were reported in 46% and 17% of patients receiving NTCD-M3 and 60% and 33% of placebo patients, respectively. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 7% of patients receiving placebo and 3% of all patients who received NTCD-M3. Headache was reported in 10% of patients receiving NTCD-M3 and 2% of placebo patients. Fecal colonization occurred in 69% of NTCD-M3 patients: 71% with 10(7) spores/d and 63% with 10(4) spores/d. Recurrence of CDI occurred in 13 (30%) of 43 placebo patients and 14 (11%) of 125 NTCD-M3 patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.11-0.69; P = .006); the lowest recurrence was in 2 (5%) of 43 patients receiving 10(7) spores/d for 7 days (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.6; P = .01 vs placebo]). Recurrence occurred in 2 (2%) of 86 patients who were colonized vs 12 (31%) of 39 patients who received NTCD-M3 and were not colonized (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.05; P < .001).

PMID 25942722

Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile for Prevention of Recurrent Infection | Gastroenterology | JAMA | The JAMA Network


Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2015 Mar; 59(3):1435-40.

Multicenter, randomized clinical trial to compare the safety and efficacy of LFF571 and vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infections.

Seventy-two patients were randomized, with 46 assigned to receive LFF571. Based on the protocol-specified definition, the rate of clinical cure for LFF571 (90.6%) was noninferior to that of vancomycin (78.3%). The 30-day sustained cure rates for LFF571 and vancomycin were 56.7% and 65.0%, respectively, in the per-protocol population and 58.7% and 60.0%, respectively, in the modified intent-to-treat population. Using toxin-confirmed cases only, the recurrence rates were lower for LFF571 (19% versus 25% for vancomycin in the per-protocol population). LFF571 was generally safe and well tolerated. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was higher for LFF571 (76.1% versus 69.2% for vancomycin), although more AEs in the vancomycin group were suspected to be related to the study drug (38.5% versus 32.6% for LFF571). 

PMID 25534727



Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(3):345.

Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials.

In a pooled analysis, 563 patients received tolevamer, 289 received metronidazole, and 266 received vancomycin. Clinical success of tolevamer was inferior to both metronidazole and vancomycin (P<.001), and metronidazole was inferior to vancomycin (P = .02; 44.2% [n = 534], 72.7% [n = 278], and 81.1% [n = 259], respectively). Clinical success in patients with severe CDI who received metronidazole was 66.3% compared with vancomycin, which was 78.5%. (P = .059). A post-hoc multivariate analysis that excluded tolevamer found 3 factors that were strongly associated with clinical success: vancomycin treatment, treatment-naive status, and mild or moderate CDI severity. Adverse events were similar among the treatment groups.

PMID 24799326


Lancet 2013 Oct 12; 382(9900):1249-57.

Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.

Of 17,420 patients screened, 1493 were randomly assigned to the microbial preparation group and 1488 to the placebo group. 1470 and 1471, respectively, were included in the analyses of the primary endpoints. AAD (including CDD) occurred in 159 (10·8%) participants in the microbial preparation group and 153 (10·4%) participants in the placebo group (relative risk [RR] 1·04; 95% CI 0·84-1·28; p=0·71). CDD was an uncommon cause of AAD and occurred in 12 (0·8%) participants in the microbial preparation group and 17 (1·2%) participants in the placebo group (RR 0·71; 95% CI 0·34-1·47; p=0·35). 578 (19·7%) participants had one or more serious adverse event; the frequency of serious adverse events was much the same in the two study groups and none was attributed to participation in the trial.

PMID 23932219



Health Technol Assess 2013 Dec; 17(57):1-140.

A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE).

Analysis based on the treatment allocated included 2941 (98.7%) participants. Potential risk factors for AAD at baseline were similar in the two study arms. Frequency of AAD (including CDD) was similar in the probiotic (159/1470, 10.8%) and placebo arms [153/1471, 10.4%; relative risk (RR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 1.28; p = 0.71]. CDD was an uncommon cause of AAD and occurred in 12/1470 (0.8%) participants in the probiotic and 17/1471 (1.2%) in the placebo arm (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.47; p = 0.35). Duration and severity of diarrhoea, common gastrointestinal symptoms, serious adverse events and quality of life measures were also similar in the two arms. Total health-care costs per patient did not differ significantly between the probiotic (£8020; 95% CI £7620 to £8420) and placebo (£8010; 95% CI £7600 to £8420) arms.

PMID 24309198

A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE)


J. Hosp. Infect. 2013 Jun; 84(2):159-65.

Probiotic VSL#3 prevents antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Patients randomized to active (N = 117) and placebo (N = 112) groups were well-matched for baseline demographic patient data. No cases of CDAD were detected. The rate of AAD was significantly lower in the active group on per protocol analysis (0% active vs 11.4% placebo; P = 0.006). On intention-to-treat analysis the difference in AAD incidence (4.3% active vs 8.9% placebo; P = 0.19) was not significant.

PMID 23618760



N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 Jan 31; 368(5):407-15.

Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile.

The study was stopped after an interim analysis. Of 16 patients in the infusion group, 13 (81%) had resolution of C. difficile-associated diarrhea after the first infusion. The 3 remaining patients received a second infusion with feces from a different donor, with resolution in 2 patients. Resolution of C. difficile infection occurred in 4 of 13 patients (31%) receiving vancomycin alone and in 3 of 13 patients (23%) receiving vancomycin with bowel lavage (P<0.001 for both comparisons with the infusion group). No significant differences in adverse events among the three study groups were observed except for mild diarrhea and abdominal cramping in the infusion group on the infusion day. After donor-feces infusion, patients showed increased fecal bacterial diversity, similar to that in healthy donors, with an increase in Bacteroidetes species and clostridium clusters IV and XIVa and a decrease in Proteobacteria species.

PMID 23323867

MMS: Error


Lancet Infect Dis 2012 Apr; 12(4):281-9.

Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for infection with Clostridium difficile in Europe, Canada, and the USA: a double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial.

Of 535 patients enrolled, 270 were assigned fidaxomicin and 265 vancomycin. After 26 patients were excluded, 509 were included in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population. 198 (91·7%) of 216 patients in the per-protocol population given fidaxomicin achieved clinical cure, compared with 213 (90·6%) of 235 given vancomycin, meeting the criterion for non-inferiority (one-sided 97·5% CI -4·3%). Non-inferiority was also shown for clinical cure in the mITT population, with 221 (87·7%) of 252 patients given fidaxomicin and 223 (86·8%) of 257 given vancomycin cured (one-sided 97·5% CI -4·9%). In most subgroup analyses of the primary endpoint in the mITT population, outcomes in the two treatment groups did not differ significantly; although patients receiving concomitant antibiotics for other infections had a higher cure rate with fidaxomicin (46 [90·2%] of 51) than with vancomycin (33 [73·3%] of 45; p=0·031). Occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events did not differ between groups. 20 (7·6%) of 264 patients given at least one dose of fidaxomicin and 17 (6·5%) of 260 given vancomycin died.

PMID 22321770



N. Engl. J. Med. 2011 Feb 3; 364(5):422-31.

Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection.

A total of 629 patients were enrolled, of whom 548 (87.1%) could be evaluated for the per-protocol analysis. The rates of clinical cure with fidaxomicin were noninferior to those with vancomycin in both the modified intention-to-treat analysis (88.2% with fidaxomicin and 85.8% with vancomycin) and the per-protocol analysis (92.1% and 89.8%, respectively). Significantly fewer patients in the fidaxomicin group than in the vancomycin group had a recurrence of the infection, in both the modified intention-to-treat analysis (15.4% vs. 25.3%, P=0.005) and the per-protocol analysis (13.3% vs. 24.0%, P=0.004). The lower rate of recurrence was seen in patients with non–North American Pulsed Field type 1 strains. The adverse-event profile was similar for the two therapies.

PMID 21288078

MMS: Error


J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Dec;66(12):2850-5. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the ability of rifaximin to prevent recurrent diarrhoea in patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

Sixty-eight patients aged 61±18 years (50% male) were given rifaximin (n = 33) or placebo (n = 35). Twenty-four of 68 (35%) patients had recurrent diarrhoea either due to recurrent CDI (23.5%) or self-reported diarrhoea (11.5%). Recurrent diarrhoea occurred in 17 of 35 (49%) patients given placebo and 7 of 33 (21%) given rifaximin (P = 0.018). CDI recurrence occurred in 11 of 35 (31%) patients given placebo and 5 of 33 (15%) patients given rifaximin (P = 0.11). Self-reported diarrhoea occurred in 6 of 35 (17%) of patients given placebo and 2 of 33 (6%) given rifaximin (P = 0.15).

PMID 21948965


N. Engl. J. Med. 2010 Jan 21; 362(3):197-205.

Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins.

Among the 200 patients who were enrolled (101 in the antibody group and 99 in the placebo group), the rate of recurrence of C. difficile infection was lower among patients treated with monoclonal antibodies (7% vs. 25%; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 29; P<0.001). The recurrence rates among patients with the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain were 8% for the antibody group and 32% for the placebo group (P=0.06); among patients with more than one previous episode of C. difficile infection, recurrence rates were 7% and 38%, respectively (P=0.006). The mean duration of the initial hospitalization for inpatients did not differ significantly between the antibody and placebo groups (9.5 and 9.4 days, respectively). At least one serious adverse event was reported by 18 patients in the antibody group and by 28 patients in the placebo group (P=0.09).

PMID 20089970

MMS: Error


Vaccine 2010 Jan 22; 28(4):965-9.

Serum anti-toxin B antibody correlates with protection from recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

CDI recurrence occurred in 5 of 29 (17%) in the CDA1 group and 3 of 17 (18%) (p=NS) in the placebo group with a trend toward delay in time to recurrence in the group treated with CDA1. The geometric mean concentration of antibody to an epitope of the receptor-binding domain of toxin B (0.300 and 1.20microg/ml, respectively; p=0.02) and geometric mean titer of neutralizing B antibody (8.00 and 100, respectively; p=0.02) at study day 28 were lower for those subjects with recurrence compared to those who did not recur. In addition, a significantly greater proportion of subjects who recurred were infected with the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain compared with those that did not recur (88% vs. 22%; p=0.002). Finally, in a multiple logistic regression analysis neutralizing anti-toxin B at day 14 (p<0.001), anti-toxin A at day 28 (p<0.001) and infection with the BI/NAP1/027 strain at enrollment (p=0.002) were all predictive of CDI recurrence.

PMID 19941990

Elsevier: Article Locator


Clin. Infect. Dis. 2009 Feb 15; 48(4):e41-6.

Nitazoxanide versus vancomycin in Clostridium difficile infection: a randomized, double-blind study.

One patient fulfilled an exclusion criterion and was removed from the study. Twenty-seven patients received vancomycin, and 23 received nitazoxanide; 23 and 18 patients, respectively, completed the full course of treatment. Initial responses occurred in 20 (74%) of 27 patients treated with vancomycin and in 17 (77%) of 22 patients treated with nitazoxanide (95% confidence interval, -24% to +28%). In those who completed therapy, response rates were 87% (20 of 23 patients) in the vancomycin group and 94% (17 of 18 patients) in the nitazoxanide group (95% confidence interval, -18% to +30%). Times to complete resolution of symptoms were similar in the 2 groups (P = .55). Two patients in the vancomycin group and 1 patient in the nitazoxanide group experienced relapse within 31 days after beginning treatment. Sustained response rates were 78% (18 of 23 patients) for the vancomycin group, and 89% (16 of 18 patients) for the nitazoxanide group (95% confidence interval, -18% to +35%).

PMID 19133801

Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic


Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(5):547.

Prospective, randomized inpatient study of oral metronidazole versus oral metronidazole and rifampin for treatment of primary episode of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
Adjunctive rifampin treatment for 10 days, compared with treatment with metronidazole alone for 10 days, was associated with a similar median time to symptom improvement (9.0 days vs. 6.5 days; P=.74), a similar median time to first relapse (26 days vs. 16 days; P=.23), a similar proportion of patients with relapse by study day 40 (42% vs. 38%; P=1.0), and a similar proportion of patients experiencing nonfatal adverse events (37% vs. 40%; P=.55). There were a significantly higher number of deaths in the metronidazole and rifampin group, compared with the metronidazole group (6 of 19 patients vs. 1 of 20 patients; P=.04), but there were fewer laboratory-confirmed relapses by study day 40 (2 vs. 4; P=.66).
PMID 16886144

Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24(3):324.

Recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea: characteristics of and risk factors for patients enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial.
Recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea (RCDD) occurs in 20% of patients after they have received standard antibiotic treatment with vancomycin or metronidazole, but the reasons for the recurrences are largely unknown. Patients receiving vancomycin or metronidazole for active C. difficile diarrhea (CDD) were referred to our study centers for treatment and a 2-month follow-up as part of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Sixty patients had RCDD (median number of episodes, 3.0; range, 2-9 episodes) and 64 were having their first episode of CDD. Patients with RCDD had more-severe abdominal pain and were more likely to have fever but initially responded well to antibiotic therapy. Data on sequential episodes showed no progression in disease severity. Five factors were associated with a higher risk of RCDD: the number of previous CDD episodes, onset of the initial disease in the spring, exposure to additional antibiotics for treatment of other infections, infection with immunoblot type 1 or 2 strains of C. difficile, and female gender. These factors may help to identify patients who are more likely to develop RCDD and require careful medical supervision
PMID 9114180

JAMA. 1994;271(24):1913.

A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease.
A history of CDD episodes dramatically increased the likelihood of further recurrences. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients treated with S boulardii and standard antibiotics had a significantly lower relative risk (RR) of CDD recurrence (RR, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.97) compared with placebo and standard antibiotics. The efficacy of S boulardii was significant (recurrence rate 34.6%, compared with 64.7% on placebo; P = .04) in patients with recurrent CDD, but not in patients with initial CDD (recurrence rate 19.3% compared with 24.2% on placebo; P = .86). There were no serious adverse reactions associated with S boulardii. 
PMID 8201735

Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(4):297.

Treatment of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriers (fecal excretors) with vancomycin or metronidazole. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Clostridium difficile organisms were not detected during and immediately after treatment in 9 of 10 patients treated with vancomycin compared with 3 of 10 patients treated with metronidazole (P = 0.02) and 2 of 10 patients in the placebo group (P = 0.005). The fecal vancomycin concentration was 1406 +/- 1164 micrograms/g feces, but metronidazole was not detectable in 9 of 10 patients. Eight of the nine evaluable patients who had negative stool cultures after treatment with vancomycin began to excrete C. difficile again 20 +/- 8 days after completing treatment. Three of these patients received additional antibiotics before C. difficile excretion recurred, and five acquired new C. difficile REA strains. Four of six patients who received only vancomycin before C. difficile excretion recurred were culture-positive at the end of the study compared with one of nine patients who received only placebo (P = 0.047).
PMID 1322075

Lancet. 1983;2(8358):1043.

Prospective randomised trial of metronidazole versus vancomycin for Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhoea and colitis.
101 patients with Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhoea or colitis were prospectively randomised to 10-day oral courses of metronidazole, 250 mg four times a day, or vancomycin, 500 mg four times a day. 7 did not complete the protocol and were dropped from analysis. Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) was diagnosed after endoscopy in 33 patients. Of the remaining patients without PMC, 38 had both C difficile culture and cytotoxin and 23 had only culture evidence of C difficile. 52 evaluable patients received vancomycin and 42 received metronidazole. There were two treatment failures with metronidazole and none with vancomycin (p = 0.20); and two relapses with metronidazole versus six with vancomycin (p = 0.17). Treatment in 1 patient in each group was discontinued because of drug intolerance. Response and relapse rates of the 33 patients with PMC were no different from those of the remaining patients. Pharmacy cost for the dosage used was $387.48 to $520.00 for vancomycin and $11.84 for metronidazole. Metronidazole and vancomycin have equivalent efficacy and relapse rates and are tolerated to a similar extent by patients with C-difficile-related diarrhoea and colitis, but metronidazole is considerably more economical.
PMID 6138597